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预防饲料霉菌毒素 Prevention of feed mycotoxins

    饲料霉菌毒素指霉菌在其污染的饲料中产生的有毒代谢产物,是一种抗营养物质和致病物质(致癌、致畸形、致突变)。它可以通过饲料进入动物体内,引起动物的急性或慢性毒性,损害机体的肝脏神经组织造血组织及皮肤免疫器管和生殖系统。霉菌毒素可在农作物收获时形成,也可在农作物收获后形成高温和高湿的环境会使饲料发生霉变和腐败。

Feed mycotoxins refer to toxic metabolites produced by molds in their contaminated feeds, which are anti-nutrients and pathogenic substances (carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic).It can enter animals through feed, causing acute or chronic toxicity in animals, damaging the body's liver, nerve tissue, hematopoietic tissue and skin, immune organs and reproductive system. Mycotoxins can be formed when crops are harvested or after crops are harvested. High temperature and high humidity can cause mildew and spoilage of the feed.


从玉米到黄贮,霉变严重

From corn to yellow silage, mildew is serious

    2021年夏季以来,我国多地降雨明显偏多,河南、山东产粮大省均遭遇严重洪涝灾害,农民损失惨重,新玉米的品质收到了严重影响,很多玉米还未收割就已经发霉。同时,因田地水涝严重,玉米秸秆收割机无法正常工作,多地牧场没有收到高质量的青贮玉米。由于时间延误,玉米秸秆水分大量流失,黄贮的难度也非常大。  

Since the summer of 2021, there has been significantly more rainfall in many parts of my country. Major grain-producing provinces such as Henan and Shandong have suffered severe floods, farmers have suffered heavy losses, and the quality of new corn has been seriously affected. Many corns have been moldy before they are harvested. At the same time, due to serious waterlogging in the fields, the corn stalk harvester could not work normally, and many pastures did not receive high-quality silage corn. Due to the time delay, the corn stalks lose a lot of water, and the yellow silage is also very difficult.


    有数据调查显示,去年全国各地区采集的1184份玉米青贮样本霉菌毒素检测结果中,呕吐毒素最高含量为18877.00μg/kg,平均含量为1942.96μg/kg,超过限量标准,超标率达6.67%;其次为玉米赤霉烯酮,最高含量为2641.43μg/kg,超标率为4.36%;黄曲霉毒素B1没有超标,其平均含量为3.90μg/kg(1)。今年和明年的玉米原料中的霉菌毒素情况预测会比往年更加严重。

According to a data survey, among 1,184 corn silage samples collected from various regions of the country last year, the highest content of DON was 18,877.00μg/kg, and the average content was 1,942.96μg/kg, exceeding the limit standard, and the exceeding rate was 6.67%; Followed by zearalenone, the highest content was 2641.43 μg/kg, and the exceeding rate was 4.36%; aflatoxin B1 did not exceed the standard, and its average content was 3.90 μg/kg (Table 1). Mycotoxins in corn feedstock this year and next are forecast to be more severe than in previous years.


霉菌毒素对动物消化道的危害

Harmful effects of mycotoxins on the digestive tract of animals

消化道是动物体内直面霉菌毒素挑战最多的场所。霉菌毒素对消化道的破坏是最直接的,同时由于霉菌毒素具有超强的腐蚀性,它会引起整个消化系统发生炎症。

The digestive tract is the place in the animal body that faces the most challenges from mycotoxins. Mycotoxins damage the digestive tract most directly, and because mycotoxins are super corrosive, they can cause inflammation throughout the digestive system.

霉菌毒素对家禽消化道的破坏

Damage to the digestive tract of poultry by mycotoxins

1、 嗉囊炎加速霉菌污染Cropitis accelerates mold contamination

    通常都认为是白色念珠菌感染,嗉囊内膨大水胀、溃疡。它带来的不是饲料发酸变质,还会把黏液流进料槽,污染料槽内的饲料,不及时清理就会导致料槽内的饲料结块发霉。

It is usually considered to be Candida albicans infection, swelling and swelling in the crop, and ulcers. It not only brings acidity and deterioration of the feed, but also flows mucus into the feed trough, which contaminates the feed in the feed trough. If it is not cleaned in time, the feed in the feed trough will agglomerate and become moldy.

2、引发腺胃炎肌胃炎Causes gland gastritis and muscle gastritis

    霉菌毒素是引起腺肌胃炎的主要元凶,能引起肌胃糜烂或角质层脱落、腺胃出现肿胀或松软。在临床上,一旦发现腺胃肿胀一般都会比较敏感和重视,直接判断为腺胃炎,但对腺胃、肌胃松软的就不那么重视了,其实出现这种情况的主要原因就是呕吐毒素和T2毒素混合感染造成的,所以,在临床上定期使用优质脱霉剂意义重大。

Mycotoxins are the main culprit in causing adenomyosis, which can cause gizzard erosion or cuticle shedding, and glandular stomach to appear swollen or soft. Clinically, once the glandular stomach is found to be swollen, it is generally more sensitive and important, and it is directly judged as "glandular gastritis", but less attention is paid to the soft glandular stomach and gizzard. In fact, the main reason for this situation is DON It is caused by mixed infection with T2 toxin, so it is of great significance to regularly use high-quality mold remover in clinical practice.

3、损伤肠道Injury to the intestines

    霉菌毒素能引起肠道充血、出血、坏死、溃疡、肠黏膜脱落、影响肠道对营养物质的吸收,料比增高。临床上,很多肠道病并不一定是细菌感染引起的,是被污染的饲料引起的,尤其是发霉的饲料和水线里的霉菌事实上,在治疗肠道病时很多情况下用抗菌药并没收到很好的效果就是最好的证明!所以,关注霉菌及霉菌毒素,是减少肠道疾病、提高饲料转化率、提高养殖效益的途径!

Mycotoxins can cause intestinal congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, ulcers, shedding of intestinal mucosa, affect the absorption of nutrients in the intestines, and increase the feed-to-meat ratio. Clinically, many intestinal diseases are not necessarily caused by bacterial infection, but caused by contaminated feed, especially moldy feed and mold in water lines. In fact, the use of antibiotics in many cases in the treatment of intestinal diseases has not received very good results is the best proof! Therefore, paying attention to mold and mycotoxins is a good way to reduce intestinal diseases, improve feed conversion rate, and improve breeding efficiency!

霉菌毒素对猪消化道的破坏Mycotoxins damage to pig digestive tract

    呕吐毒素能引起养猪业较大的经济损失。呕吐毒素会引起猪的呕吐,伤害消化道,甚致会引起胃溃疡和胃穿孔。育肥猪生长缓慢,皮毛肮脏,拉稀腹泻等。呕吐毒素最明显的影响是降低采食量,部分动物会出现呕吐。它也会抑制免疫系统,降低抗氧化能力,有些时候还会对肠道粘膜造成损伤,通过影响紧密连接蛋白而破坏肠道通透性,导致沙门氏菌等致病菌透过肠道屏障。

DON can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. DON can cause vomiting in pigs, damage the digestive tract, and even cause gastric ulcers and gastric perforation. Fattening pigs grow slowly, with dirty fur, diarrhea, etc. The most obvious effect of DON is a reduction in feed intake, and some animals may vomit. It also suppresses the immune system, reduces antioxidant capacity, and sometimes causes damage to the intestinal mucosa, disrupting intestinal permeability by affecting tight junction proteins, allowing pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella to penetrate the intestinal barrier.

    T2毒素属于单端孢霉烯族毒素,该家族有200多种毒素,分为AB型两大类,T2HT2(T2的主要代谢物)都属于A型。T2相当于一个指示剂,一旦检测到,往往不只它一个孤立存在,还能同时见到该家族的其他亲戚毒素。T2毒素不仅会引起免疫抑制,释放促炎症因子,还会损伤整个消化系统的粘膜,引起肠出血。

T2 toxins belong to the Trichothecenes family of toxins. There are more than 200 toxins in this family, which are divided into two types: A and B. T2 and HT2 (the main metabolites of T2) belong to A type. T2 is equivalent to an indicator. Once detected, it often not only exists in isolation, but also sees other "relative" toxins in the family at the same time. Not only does T2 toxin cause immunosuppression and release pro-inflammatory factors, it also damages the mucosa of the entire digestive system, causing intestinal bleeding.

霉菌毒素对反刍动物消化道的破坏

Mycotoxins damage to the digestive tract of ruminants

   

反刍动物瘤胃微生物对玉米赤霉烯酮的降解可达90%,因此对玉米赤霉烯酮的敏感性不如猪,但值得注意的是,玉米赤霉烯酮经过瘤胃微生物作用后的产物是毒性更大的玉米赤霉烯醇。黄曲霉毒素降低瘤胃纤维素的消化、挥发性脂肪酸的组成和蛋白质的水解,从而影响瘤胃体外消化功能,引发牛出现胃肠炎、肠出血、腹泻、拉稀等症状。

Ruminant rumen microorganisms can degrade zearalenone by up to 90%, so the sensitivity to zearalenone is not as good as that of pigs, but it is worth noting that the product of zearalenone after the action of rumen microorganisms is toxic Greater Zearalenol. Aflatoxin reduces the digestion of rumen cellulose, the composition of volatile fatty acids and the hydrolysis of protein, thereby affecting the in vitro digestion function of the rumen, causing gastroenteritis, intestinal bleeding, diarrhea, diarrhea and other symptoms in cattle.

由于习惯上将不符合食用标准的原料转为饲料饲喂动物,因此霉菌毒素对饲料安全的影响远高于其对食品安全的直接影响。近几年来,我国饲料中霉菌毒素阳性率大于95%,黄曲霉毒素、玉米赤霉烯酮、呕吐毒素、T-2 毒素是主要饲料霉菌毒素,超标率大于10%。动物一旦摄食含有霉菌毒素的饲料将会造成霉菌毒素中毒症。低剂量的毒素造成动物生产性能和免疫机能下降,引起动物肝肾脏病变、肠毒综合征、腺胃肌胃炎、繁殖障碍等疾病,高剂量的毒素则引起动物急性死亡。霉菌毒素在肉、蛋、奶中残留,还会引发动物源性食品安全问题。因此,有效控制和解决霉菌毒素对粮食和饲料的污染,对改善动物生产性能和提高人类食品安全有非常重要的意义。

Since it is customary to convert raw materials that do not meet edible standards into feed to feed animals, the impact of mycotoxins on feed safety is much higher than its direct impact on food safety. In recent years, the positive rate of mycotoxins in my country's feed is more than 95%. Aflatoxin, zearalenone, DON and T-2 toxin are the main feed mycotoxins, and the excess rate is more than 10%. Mycotoxicosis occurs when animals ingest feed containing mycotoxins. Low-dose toxins cause the decline of animal production performance and immune function, causing animal liver and kidney disease, enterotoxic syndrome, gastritis, reproductive disorders and other diseases, while high-dose toxins cause acute animal death. Mycotoxins remain in meat, eggs, and milk, and can also cause food safety issues of animal origin. Therefore, it is very important to effectively control and solve the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins to improve animal production performance and human food safety.



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